Preparations that help to speed up the development of plants and protect them from diseases

Preparations that help to speed up the development of plants and protect them from diseases


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How to strengthen plants

Healthy vegetables

The most serious reason for gardening today is getting organic vegetables. Therefore, plant protection should be based on the use of agents that increase the resistance of plants to infections in the form of active and passive immunity and biofungicides.

And it is precisely to increase the resistance of plants to diseases and some pests that there are so-called immunity inducers (otherwise - immunomodulators) - substances that activate protective forces. The first drugs of this type, called "Immunocytofit", "Novosil", "Symbiont-universal", have been known for several years. However, their action, based on the production of so-called phytoalexins, is relatively narrow.

For more reliable prevention of some infectious plant diseases, it is advisable to alternate different immunomodulators, while it is better to use more modern ones. Examples of such drugs can be considered drugs based on chitosans.


Strengthen and nourish

Term chitosans means that their main active substances are derivatives of chitin - a substance contained in the skeleton of arthropods, including insects, as well as in the cell wall of fungi. The peculiarity of the action of such drugs is that chitosans manifest themselves as signaling substances that trigger the activity of genes responsible for various protective reactions. By this, they, in contrast to the more familiar drugs, allow the use of a larger number of defense mechanisms. However, their combined use with "Immunocytofit" or "Symbiont-universal" provides a stronger protective effect. The enhancement of plant growth under the influence of chitosans is primarily explained by their ability to release nitrogen, which is known to be a nutrient for plants, therefore, to some extent, such preparations can be considered a source of organically bound nitrogen.

Several chitosan preparations have been invented, but Ecoel and Narcissus, as well as Slox-Eco Artemia, are produced for gardeners (in small packaging). Each of them is interesting in its own way, for example, the feature of "Eco-gel" - the addition of silver ions (to suppress harmful bacteria) and the magnetic structuring of water during the production process. In "Narcissus" - the presence of residues of succinic and glutamic acids, which have a stimulating effect. Moreover, only "Narcissus" is officially approved for use.

It is worth noting that most immunomodulators (or immunity inducers) stimulate, in addition to protective properties, also growth and development, that is, they are stimulants in the broad sense of the word.

Similar drugs

Other agents also have the ability to stimulate immunity and plant growth. For example, humates, "Silk", "Zircon", partially - "Epin".

Experiments with cabbage

Humic fertilizers

Potassium and sodium humates are widely known among gardeners, but to broaden the horizons and understand the features of the action, I will cite some properties of humic and fulvic acid salts.

So, these natural substances increase the energy of the cell: they accelerate metabolic processes, including respiration, increase the supply of nutrients to the plant, accelerate the synthesis of nucleic acids and protein, activate protein and carbohydrate metabolism, and improve the biochemical composition of plants. They also intensify the consumption of moisture and carbon dioxide contained in the atmosphere. In practice, this manifests itself in the form of an acceleration of awakening, an increase in the energy of seed germination, an acceleration of the growth and development of the aboveground and root systems, as well as in the stimulation of flowering, fruit formation, and fruit ripening. As a result, this leads to an increase in the yield of agricultural crops, as well as to an increase in the content of sugars and vitamins. At the same time, the resistance of plants to stresses of various natures and unfavorable factors (frost, drought, solar radiation, etc.) increases. And this gives the preservation of productivity when the development conditions deviate from the optimal. In addition, these drugs reduce the build-up of nitrates. They intensify the regenerative processes in damaged plants (accelerating the recovery of cells damaged by pesticides, harmful substances and pathogenic organisms).

However, one feature of their action must be taken into account - a significant dependence on concentration. On some crops, a stimulating effect is observed from solutions with a concentration of up to 0.1%. That is, a good effect requires strict adherence to the concentration, in addition, long exposure is required to stimulate seed germination, therefore, with short-term soaking, fertilizers "Baikal EM-1" and "Gumistar", as well as the drug "EcoGel" are more effective.

As for "Gumistar", as an extract from vermicompost, it contains humic and fulvic acids (another kind of humic acids), as well as chitinase enzymes, which have a depressing effect on pathogens and pests.

Silk. Its active principle is triterpene acids, the mechanism of action of which is to activate the processes of photosynthesis. The treatment of plants with Silkom helps to increase the productivity and resistance of plants to various epiphytoties (similar to epidemics in humans - mass diseases, for example, late blight).

"Zircon". The mechanism of its action is based on the unique properties of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCC), namely, caffeic acid and its derivatives - chicoric and chlorogenic acids, isolated from Echinacea purpurea using an original production technology.

The drug "Epin-Extra" is used to eliminate the effects of stress from cold or heat, while it can increase resistance to disease. However, the active ingredient is epibrassinolide - a plant hormone, which, even with the slightest excess of concentration, can cause oppression or burns of the plant.

At the same time, preparations based on chitosans ("Narcissus", "Ecogel") are harmless to both plants and people, even if the concentration or total dose is exceeded.

In conclusion, it can be noted that sufficient plant resistance to diseases simultaneously with a high growth and development rate is possible with a sufficient supply of all nutrients. At the same time, chitosan preparations produced as growth and immunity regulators are capable of feeding plants with organically bound nitrogen, and such fertilizers as Baikal EM-1 and Gumistar also have protective properties.

Bow Experiment March 2, 2010

What does practice show?

The first tests of "Narcissus" were carried out in 1996-1998 at the All-Russian Institute of Selection and Technology of Horticulture and Nursery. As a result, a significant increase in the keeping quality of apples and strawberries was noted. In addition, the addition of the drug to fungicides increased their effectiveness, in particular, against cytosporosis. It is also noteworthy that the combined use of "Narcissus" with "Fitoverm" was very successful (with a biological efficiency of up to 99%) against nematodes on strawberries.

In general, there is an increase in yield by 25-35%.

Last year, I also conducted two experiments with "Narcissus": on tomato seeds and on onions. We can say that the drug proved to be quite effective as a stimulant and fertilizer. For example, spilling the soil with the Narcissus solution increased the germination of tomato seeds by 44%, and soaking the onion bulbs for only 1.5 hours out of the recommended 6-12 hours (to comply with the principle of single difference) increased the length of the feathers by 30-47%. Good results were also obtained in 2010 from the combined use of "Eco-gel" with "Baikal EM-1" on onions and room roses - there was a noticeable acceleration of growth, while the rose's bud awakenability increased. In my opinion, fertilizer "Baikal EM-1" enhances the effect of chitosan by accelerating the process of dissolution, splitting and release of nitrogen from it. This indicates a relatively high content of finished enzymes in the preparation, since chitosans are considered bactericidal substances.

Two years ago, I tested the "EcoGel" preparation on tomatoes. We can say that under its action the seeds germinated 1-2 days faster, and the germination rate was about 80% higher.

In general, both drugs work: "Ecogel" is more powerful, but for use on the site it turns out to be ten times more expensive, therefore, "Narcissus" received more distribution and registration.

In the beginning of the season, I decided to test the preparations "Zircon", "Epin", "Baikal EM-1", NV-101, "Lignohumat", "Alirin-B" and "Narcissus" as stimulants. The experiment was carried out on the seeds of a tomato hybrid Spartak. The goodness of their germination was best influenced by the drugs "Narcissus" (an increase of 27.3%), "Baikal EM-1" (+ 20.7%), "Alirin-B" (+ 17.3%). The vitalizer, the drug HB-101, also had a good effect. The fertilizers "Baikal EM-1" and "Lignohumat" had the best effect on germination, increasing it by 13%. At the same time, the preparations "Epin-Extra" and "Zircon" slightly increased the germination capacity, while reducing the germination energy.

As you can see, the fertilizers Lignohumat and Baikal EM-1, the growth regulator Narcissus and the biofungicide Alirin-B turned out to be the most effective stimulators of germination. Considering that "Alirin-B" is primarily intended to suppress infections, then the treatment with this drug can also be considered an etching.

Alexander Zharavin, agronomist

Photo by the author


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Plant growth regulators: types and applications

To improve seed germination, accelerate the growth and development of seedlings to obtain earlier and more abundant yields, prepare plants for adverse climatic conditions, and also protect them from various pests and diseases, growth stimulants are used. Let's talk about how to stimulate seed germination and root formation with the help of folk and modern means, how to use growth regulators correctly.

Many gardeners are faced with the problem of poor germination of vegetable seeds. The reasons for this can be very different. These are violated storage conditions and terms, and unripe seeds, and much more.

Some stimulants affect seed germination, others improve root formation, others increase the number of ovaries, thereby helping to increase yields, fourth increase the leaf mass and stimulate the development of additional shoots, fifth help to survive the stress of frost or overheating.

Growth stimulants (phytohormones) regulate the process of plant development.

  • auxins promote root development, improve metabolism
  • cytokinins improve kidney growth, participate in cell division
  • gibberellins stimulate seed germination, flowering, fruiting
  • brass support the immune system, regulate fruit ripening.

    The preparations contain biologically active substances, vitamins, micro- and macroelements. They are obtained from algae, bacteria, fungi, coal, peat.

    Also developed synthetic regulators... They use analogs of the phytohormones listed above. In terms of effectiveness, they are not inferior to natural ones.
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    Read more about what the action of growth regulators is based on, how to make them yourself and use them wisely - in this article.
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    Folk plant growth stimulants

    Well established as growth stimulants:

    • potato or aloe juice,
    • infusions of onion husks and ash,
    • Bee Honey,
    • infusion of young shoots of nettle,
    • yeast solution, etc.

    However, it is imperative to take into account the biological compatibility of plants. For example, aloe juice most favorable for tomato seeds. It can be used to soak eggplant, cabbage and lettuce seeds, but is not suitable for processing pepper, onion, celery and pumpkin seeds.

    Photo: aloe juice is a natural stimulant of plant and seed growth

    Phytohormones and EM preparations for plants

    Phytohormones are widespread:

  • contribute to the awakening of a sleeping embryo, destruction of the seed coat,
  • increase germination energy,
  • improve the development of the root system and sprout.

    It is important to use only a freshly prepared solution of the drug according to the instructions, which has not expired (for example, the synthesized drug Epin-Extra).

    EM drugs Is a concentrated culture of effective microorganisms that increases seed germination and has received many positive reviews from gardeners (for example, "Vostok EM-1").

    • Before planting, the seeds should be soaked in a 1: 500 solution of an EM preparation for 20-30 minutes.

    Photo: microbiological preparations and phytohormones to stimulate plant growth

    Humates as a growth stimulant

    Humates are very popular now. With their help, you can also accelerate the emergence of seedlings of vegetable and flower plants (first of all, this is important for thermophilic crops).

    The influence of humates is especially strong in the early stages of plant development. When processing seeds, the young shoot forms strong roots and acquires resistance to diseases, which leads to an increase in yield. This is especially important for potatoes. The seeds need to be soaked for 1 day at room temperature.

    The concentration of the active substance in humates can be different and range from 10 to 90%. It depends on the type of preparation (raw materials and production method). Therefore, you need to apply it according to the instructions.

    Succinic acid as a growth stimulant

    Seeds treated with succinic acid increase germination, plants develop better and get sick less often.

    • To soak the seeds, use a 0.004% solution (4 ml of a 1% stock solution is diluted in 100 ml of water).
    • A 1% solution is obtained by dissolving 1 tablet weighing 0.1 g in 100 ml of water.

    The seeds are soaked before sowing for no more than a day, after which they are slightly dried and sown in the ground.

    Photo: succinic acid tablets are sold in pharmacies

    Rules for the use of growth stimulants

    Unlike fertilizers, growth regulators do not contain any additional nutrients. Their use is aimed primarily at accelerating growth and increasing the quality and quantity of the harvest.

    For good results, the processing process is repeated several times. The drugs are used both against a specific problem associated with the growth or development of a plant, and for the purpose of prevention. However, it is important to remember the instructions. If the specified norm is exceeded, you can not wait at all.

    Do not forget about the observance of safety rules:

  • It is necessary to start work only with special protective clothing, respirator, gloves.
  • Do not use food containers.
  • When working with stimulants, you should refrain from drinking, eating and smoking.
  • In case of contact with an open skin area, wash it off completely with soap.
  • If a growth stimulant has entered the esophagus or stomach, activated charcoal can be used. Drinking plenty of water will also help.

    The rational use of stimulants will ultimately not only contribute to an increase in yield, but also improve soil fertility, the quality of fruits without harming the plants themselves.


    The most resistant potato varieties

    Of course, the risk is quite high, but there are varieties that have special resistance.

    • "The sorcerer". It has been actively used since 2000 and has unique taste. Differs in high resistance to diseases, due to which from a large number of species it turns out to be almost the only immune one. The starch content does not exceed 20 percent.
    • "Story". It came into use in 2004. Huge chance of resistance, starch content ranges from 14 to 17 percent.
    • "The Riddle of Peter". Gained fame in 2005, is quite stable.

    Are there the most “vulnerable” regions? Undoubtedly, such exist, but it all depends on the time intervals when the influence of diseases and pests weakens.

    For example, late blight. In 2007, it became almost a global problem in Karelia, Arkhangelsk, Vologda and Kaliningrad. But two years later, the disease failed to affect these cities.


    How to protect your garden from diseases and pests

    Folk remedies and plants

    Since vegetables that are grown in the garden are subsequently used for food, the fight against diseases and harmful insects should be carried out using means that are safe for the human body.

    Growing insecticidal crops in your garden is a good protective method. Such plants have the ability not only to scare away harmful guests of vegetable crops, but also to suppress the development of various diseases. Planting plants such as nettles, chamomile, lemon balm, wormwood and celandine next to the beds will not only help scare off many insects, but also increase the yield due to good pollination. Many garden pests categorically do not tolerate aromas. coriander, marigolds, calendula and basilica... Growing such decorative plantings on your site will help protect young seedlings from the invasion of harmful insects.

    The Colorado potato beetle has a dislike for dill and parsley, so placing potatoes next to these plants will help reduce the number of this pest.

    Among the folk remedies for protecting the garden from diseases and insect infestations, you can use the following recipes:

    • A solution prepared on the basis of laundry soap: Just dissolve 300 grams of this product in 10 liters of water
    • A unique remedy that helps protect cabbage from voracious caterpillars is tobacco dustsprinkled with vegetable crops
    • Infusion prepared on the basis of burdock leaves, helps to destroy leaf-eating caterpillars and aphids on cabbage and radishes. For its preparation, use 1/3 of a bucket of burdock leaves, which are poured with boiling water, kept for several days, then sprayed with it
    • To scare off cruciferous fleas from seedlings of radish, radish and cabbage, use wood ash
    • Infusion made from leaves and stems dandelions (Finely chopped 400-500 grams of leaves and rhizomes of this plant are poured with a bucket of water and insisted for a couple of hours. It is not necessary to dilute the resulting solution), helps to destroy aphids on various vegetable crops.

    Among the diseases that affect crops grown in the garden, the following can be distinguished:

    • Gray rot can affect all plants, penetrating through its damaged areas. The main means of control is the removal of diseased parts or the whole plant, and to prevent the development of infection, it is necessary to remove rotting fruits and leaves from the garden.
    • Plant spotting is manifested by the appearance of dark spots on vegetable crops. The main reason for the development of this disease is high humidity and neglect of plantings, and the main method of control is the removal of diseased parts of plants and compliance with the rules of crop rotation.
    • Signs of late blight is the appearance of brown areas on the leaves of potatoes, cucumbers and tomatoes. It is important to prevent contact of live spores with root crops, otherwise they will get late blight during storage. To avoid this, the stems are hilled with earth and all diseased areas are removed about 5-10 days before digging the potatoes. As a preventive measure, it is recommended to spray the plant with a fungicide immediately after pinching.

    Chemicals

    Of those helping to destroy pests of vegetable and horticultural crops, use "Decis", "Spark", "Karate", "Bazudin", "Ridomil"and others, widely represented in specialized stores.

    Of course, the protection of the garden and vegetable garden from unpleasant diseases and insects is an important component in the struggle for the harvest, and in order to achieve positive results, the use of all kinds of means and methods is allowed. However, compliance with preventive measures at the summer cottage will help not only to reduce the number of harmful insects, but also in some cases to protect them from their appearance.


    How to process potatoes before planting using potassium permanganate

    Potassium permanganate is one of the most effective folk remedies that help protect fruits from pests. It is customary to dilute 5 g of this ingredient in water to obtain a solution. The plants are thoroughly sprayed with them.


    Qualitative processing of potatoes before planting: how and how to protect against diseases and pests

    Potatoes are a fruitful crop, but this indicator is influenced by many factors, from the inclinations of the variety to the nuances of agricultural technology, each of which has its own effect on the total volume of grown tubers. Not the last place is given to the pre-planting treatment of tubers, which can also affect how the crop will end up. Consider how to process potatoes before planting, what preparations to use, and how to do it correctly.


    Watch the video: SECRET TIPS TO CLONING PLANTS IN WATER: 10 EASY GARDENING IDEAS AND HACKS


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